Anatomy Of The Back Muscles

The back muscles are really important to the human body. Some of them help maintain posture, while others are responsible for basic movements. In this article, we will tell you everything you need to know about the subject.
Anatomy of the back muscles

The anatomy of the back muscles is an interesting topic as the back muscles play a very important role in movement. In this article, we look at some of the most important back muscles and their functions.


The back can be divided into two main areas, i.e. the upper and lower back. The upper back connects to the upper limbs and thoracic organs such as the lungs and heart. The lower back connects to the lumbar and abdominal organs, such as the liver and intestines.

The anatomy of the back muscles in practice determines their function according to the location where they are in the human body and according to the other structures to which they associate. These muscles define the posture of the body and also regulate the three basic movements of the body: bending, rotation, and stretching. They are a common research topic in the field of occupational health care due to general occupational injuries.

We do not describe all the back muscles in this article, but we do give an overview of the most significant muscles. So we divide them into three areas according to their depth. So let’s look at what deep, middle and superficial muscles a person has.

Anatomy of the back muscles: deep back muscles

These muscles are farther from the surface, closer to the internal organs and the spine. They extend as a general group from the neck to the sacrum and fulfill a basic function: control of the posture of the whole body.

Let’s look at a few of them:

  • Spinal muscles: They run along the entire spine between the processes of the spine and the transverse processes of the vertebrae. Scientific research in recent years has found how bad working postures affect them in a bad way. They consist of two types:
    • The ligament of the spinal cord binds the processes of the spine of different vertebrae; it acts as an extension of the spine.
    • The cross-ligament does the same with transverse processes; it is responsible for the branches.
  • Cross-ligaments: These ligaments connect the pelvis to the spine and thus to the cervical spine. They can lengthen the spine and also play a very important role in tilting the body from side to side.
  • The back muscles of the back: These muscles come in two forms and participate in the dynamics of the airways as well as help the chest to inhale and exhale.  They are also located in the spine and go between the ribs.

Anatomy of the back muscles: the muscles of the middle layer

anatomy of the spinal muscles

The function of this muscle group can be condensed to regulate the movement of the scapula. They are thus directly connected to the bone we know as the scapula.  This bone pretends to be articulated with the rib, so it is sometimes referred to as a “false joint” because it does not typically form like other joints. Instead, it is the bone surface (scapula) of a muscle (saw muscle).

It involves two interesting meats:

  • Shoulder bone angle : The shoulder blade is lifted here and can also be classified as upper limb muscle due to its purpose. It is created in the scapula and reaches the cervical spine.
  • Parallel muscles: as the muscle contracts, the scapula approaches the spine in an adductive motion. It also communicates with the scapula with the columns it adds. Its name comes from its parallelogram shape.

Anatomy of the back muscles: superficial muscles

These muscles are best known for being associated with bodybuilding and aesthetics. The good development of these back muscles creates a characteristic body for those who train them regularly.

However, they have an important meaning that is functionally far from aesthetic. Muscles at this level are actively involved in shoulder joint movements.

Here are the two most relevant meats:

  • Small muscle : This is one of the largest muscles and has three connecting parts. It connects to the bone in the back of the skull, the cervical spine, the clavicle, the vertebrae of the spine, and the scapula. It has several functions:
    • Shoulder lifting
    • Progression of the scapula to the spine
    • Lowering the scapula
  • Wide back muscle: This muscle begins its journey from the last vertebra and the part of the body that makes up the last three ribs. It is thin, practically flat and triangular. When the arm acts as a fixed point, it lifts the body.

We hope you enjoy reading this article and learn more about the body and its muscles!

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